Androgens and anabolic steroids include the endogenous male sex hormone testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and other agents that behave like these sex hormones. Androgens stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics (such as deepening of the voice and beard growth) and development of male sex organs. Anabolic steroids stimulate growth in many other types of tissues, especially bone and muscle. Anabolic effects also include increased production of red blood cells.
Medically, androgens and anabolic steroids are used to treat:
Are Anabolic Steroids Prohibited in Sports?
Some athletes may abuse anabolic steroids to build muscle, prolong endurance and enhance performance. Anabolic agents are prohibited at all times, both in- and out-of-competition in collegiate and professional sports and appear on both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) Prohibited Lists. Anabolic steroid use is also prohibited by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as well as the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).1, 2
Anabolic steroids include all synthetic derivatives of testosterone, both oral and injectable. Examples of anabolic steroids include testosterone, methyltestosterone, danazol, and oxandrolone. Anabolic steroids are performance-enhancing agents and act by increasing lean muscle protein synthesis and body weight, without increasing fat mass.3