Side effects of steroids for allergies

September 23, 2016
In allergic rhinitis

You have a greater chance of developing congestion if your nose is inflamed from allergies. Nasal corticosteroids relieve congestion by decreasing the inflammation in your nose. Unlike inhaled corticosteroids used for asthma, nasal versions are sprayed directly into the nasal passages.

Nasal corticosteroids are commonly available in spray form. They’re also available as aerosol liquids and powders.

Nasal corticosteroids provide relief from congestion. Unlike over-the-counter nasal sprays, nasal corticosteroids aren’t addictive. You can use them without your body becoming used to them. On the other hand, it can take up to three weeks for you to start feeling the full benefits, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Side Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids

The most common side effect of nasal corticosteroids is irritation of your nose or throat. These medications might also cause dryness in your nose.

These drugs rarely cause major side effects. However, if you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor right away:

  • nose bleeds or sores
  • vision changes
  • breathing difficulties
  • swelling of your face
  • dizziness
  • eye pain
  • headaches

Risks of Nasal Corticosteroids

One major risk of nasal corticosteroids is that they can sometimes make asthma symptoms worse. You may want to consider using a different type of product if you have allergic asthma. You should also check with your doctor if you have a history of:

  • nose injuries
  • surgeries on your nose
  • nose sores
  • infections
  • heart attack
  • liver disease
  • type 2 diabetes
  • underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism
  • glaucoma

Certain types of steroids are also not recommended for use in pregnant women and women who are nursing.

Oral Corticosteroids

Oral corticosteroids have the same primary purpose as their nasal counterparts. They reduce inflammation. These steroids can reduce inflammation all over your body rather than in one specific area. This is why they can be used for a range of allergic reactions, including severe pollen allergies and skin allergies, such as eczema.

Tablets are among the most common forms of these drugs, but they’re also available as syrups. This is beneficial for pediatric and geriatric patients who may not be able to swallow pills easily.

Due to their powerful nature, oral corticosteroids are generally used for a short period. Long-term use of these drugs can increase your risk of side effects.

Side Effects of Oral Corticosteroids

Some of the side effects of oral corticosteroids are similar to nasal versions. However, medications taken by mouth tend to have a wider range of potential adverse effects. These include:

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • increased blood pressure
  • hallucinations
  • appetite changes
  • water retention
  • muscle weakness
  • joint pain
  • decreased immunity

Some of these side effects go away on their own. However, you should tell your doctor about any reaction to oral corticosteroids to prevent further complications.

Risks of Oral Corticosteroids

Oral corticosteroids are more effective overall than their nasal versions because they focus on more than one area of your body. The risk of side effects is higher in oral corticosteroids, however. This is because they’re in a higher concentration. The risk is even higher if you take a high dose over a long time period.

Your doctor will likely start you off with the lowest dose possible to reduce your risks. You might receive a larger dose if more medication is necessary. Never take more than the recommended dose. This can lead to potentially life-threatening consequences.


Corticosteroids are among many of the types of medications available in the treatment of allergies. Inhaled corticosteroids may be used for asthma. However, it isn’t used to treat all cases of allergic asthma. Talk to your doctor about which option might be best for you.

Although they’re used for chronic diseases like allergies, corticosteroids can become dangerous when used for a long time. This is why your doctor will closely monitor your condition and your symptoms. They’ll lower the dose when needed.

Corticosteroids cause allergic reactions in some people. While it’s rare, an allergic reaction to corticosteroids can be life-threatening. Call 911 right away if you experience breathing difficulties, swelling, and extreme feelings of fatigue.

In some cases, it’s not a matter of whether you should choose nasal or oral corticosteroids. You may need to decide whether corticosteroids are a good option for you overall. Some people don’t respond well to any form of steroids, making these types of medications useless for allergy symptoms. Your doctor might order a blood test to see whether or not this is the case for you. Discuss any past reactions to steroid medications with your doctor. Tell them about any family history of issues from taking this medication. This can help avoid the potential for dangerous side effects.

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